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Psychiatry

Psikiyatri bir tıp dalıdır. Ruh sağlığı ve akıl hastalıkları ile ilgilenir. Bu hastalıklar düşünce, davranış ve duygu değişiklikleri ile kendini gösterir.

Psychiatry is a branch of medicine, dealing with mental health and mental disorders.
These disorders manifest themselves with the changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors.

The scientific progresses which started in the 20th century showed that; THE BODY and THE SOUL are part of a whole, and human beings come into existence with their social surroundings. Poor quality of life which is caused by physical illnesses or social environment problems has an impact on the human psychology. Brain dysfunctions may lead to a number of disorders in thoughts, feelings and behaviors .For these reasons; psychiatry treats people by considering their soul and body as a whole. Psychiatric diseases are diagnosed by psychiatry specialists and the treatment methods are determined by considering individual, environmental and physiological factors.

 

The most common applied treatment methods are medication, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), individual psychotherapy (BDT, EMDR, Hypnosis etc.)  Various psychiatric diseases can be seen in each stage of life -from childhood to old age- and the number of patients consulting a psychiatrist is increasing each passing day.In particular, many of the difficulties experienced today as a result of changes in living conditions cause people to suffer from psychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety.

Contrary to popular belief, many psychiatric medications don’t cause addiction and when the treatment is completed, the patient can easily discontinue medication.

Psychiatric Disorders;

  • Organic mental disorders and mental retardation
  • Dementia and Deliriums
  • Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
  • Mood disorders (depression, bipolar disorder)
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Alcohol-substance use disorders
  • Somataform disorders
  • Dissociation disorders
  • Eating disorders
  • Sleeping disorders
  • Sexual dysfunctions
  • Personality disorders

 

 

DEPRESSION

 

The incidence of the depression is about 20%.  Compared to men, depression is more common in women. Manifesting itself with emotional, mental, behavioral and physical symptoms, depression can be described as a mood disorders. Feeling depressed, loss of interest and joy are the most obvious symptoms.

The depressed people are unhappy, pessimistic and desperate. Even the things the depressed people used to do with excitement, no longer excites them; they feel sad and lonely and are not interested in themselves and their environment as they used to be. Excessive guilt can be seen, which is usually accompanied with internal distress, distress, restlessness.

Another common symptom is lack of attention and dysmnesia. Slow movements resulted from energy decrease, severe fatigue, loss of sexual interest and desire, loss of appetite, weight loss, overeating may also be seen. Difficulty in falling asleep, sleeping disorders, waking up too early in the morning may constitute other symptoms. Some may have the tendency to have hypersomnia. Head, neck back, joint aches, and gastrointestinal complaints may be accompanied.

Living alone, lack of social support, stressful life experiences, having a family with depression history, marriage or relationship problems, financial difficulties, childhood trauma or abuse, alcohol or drug abuse, unemployment, health problems or chronic illnesses are the risk factors of developing depression. Administering medication and psychotherapy together is the most appropriate depression treatment. Contrary to the popular belief, medications used for the depression treatment are not addictive medications. They do not have serious side effects. When requested and recommended by the doctor they can be easily given up.

BIPOLAR DISORDER:

 

Bipolar mood disorder, also known as bipolar disorder and manic depressive disorder manifests itself with long- lasting mood swings, which may occur partially or completely related to life experiences.These changes affect the feelings, physical health, behaviors and life functions of a person.Bipolar Mood Disorder is a treatable mental illness that causes extreme changes in feelings, energy and behaviors. The person with bipolar mood disorder has (mania / hippomania periods) feelings of excessive exuberance or very sedentary (depression) or both. While symptoms such as loss of energy, lack of enjoy, reluctance, pessimism are the symptoms seen during depression;  High energy and high self-esteem, talking too much, hyperactivity, spending too much money, high level of sexual desire and insomnia are the symptoms observed in the manic depressive period. Mood-stabilizing, antipsychotic, antidepressant medications are used for the treatment. Beside these, supportive, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy would also be beneficial for the treatment. 

SCHIZOPHRENIA

SCHIZOPHRENIA is one of the psychotic disorders. Psychosis is a term commonly used for the misinterpretation of reality. Many diseases would be accompanied with psychosis.Schizophrenia is a chronic disease with an incidence of around 1% and seen equally in men and women. It generally starts at the ages of 20-30, manifesting itself with disorders in thoughts and feelings.

Medical researchers refrain from precise descriptions. Yet, findings show its effect on brain functions each passing day.

Main symtoms are:

Delusions: Strange beliefs, which do not based on reality or the beliefs one does not want to give up. For example, people having delusions believe that others can hear their thoughts; they may also believe that they are God or the devil, affecting other people’s thoughts. 

Hallucinations: Hearing, smelling, seeing things that are not real; feeling a strange taste in the mouth, feeling as if someone is touching. The most common symptom of the patients with schizophrenia is hearing voices. Voices might comment on people’s behavior, harass them or give orders.

 

• Using nonsensical words that make it difficult for the person to communicate and participate in the conversation,• Mood swings• Moving slowly• Lack of decision-making ability• Writing excessive but pointless things• Forgetting or losing things• Repeated movements such as walking in circles• Having problems with understanding daily image, voice and emotion• Feeling strange emotions, having strange thoughts (eg, crying instead of laughing)• Moving away from family, friends and social activities• Low energy• Lack of motivation• Not enjoying life, lack of interest in life • Bad cleaning habits• Problems related to school, work and other activities• Unbalance (very happy or very sad or mood swings)• Catatonia (not moving -being in the same position in the same position- for a very long time)

 

 

It is necessary to use antipsychotic medication for its treatment. ECT can be applied when necessary. Supportive, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy applied to the patients and their families can be beneficial.

 

ANXIETY DISORDERS

  • Common anxiety disorder
  • Panic disorder
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder
  • Social phobia
  • Specific phobia
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder

 

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder:

 

People with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) have anxiety constant and severe

Feeling anxious or having excessive anxiety when there is no reason, not being able to control the anxiety are the main symptoms of the disease.

In most cases people having anxiety disorder are aware that their anxiety is excessive, but they cannot control themselves and cannot calm down anyhow. They are known as “neuritic (full of anxieties)”.  Fatigue, attention deficit, concentration impairment, being easily started, not being able to falling asleep and waking up often at night are the other symptoms.

Some physical symptoms such as tiredness, headache and muscle aches, swallowing difficulty, trembling and chills, sweating, intolerance, nausea, dizziness, hot flush accompany GAD.

Most of the patients with GAD benefit from the treatment. Psychotherapy or medication can be administered. Using these methods together is efficient. However, it would be appropriate to decide with your doctor on which type of treatment is right for you.

 

 

PANIC DISORDER:

 

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Accompanied by intense distress, fear and some physical symptoms, panic attack is a frequently recurrent disorder which emerges suddenly. Panic attack occurs suddenly, aggravates gradually and its severity reaches the highest point in 10 minutes; most of the time it continues for 10-30 minutes and then it stops.

Sudden chest pain, chest tightness, palpitation, asphyxiation, sweating, shake, chill, nauseation, stomach-ache, dizziness, imbalance, numbness and tingling, delusion of falling, fainting, suffering a heart attack, having a stroke, having the fear of losing mind are the symptoms of the panic attack.

Panic disorder is characterized by panic attacks that occur in unexpected moments and having the anxiety of recurrence when there is no attack. Panic disorder is often treated with both medication and psychotherapy; however, some patients are treated only with psychotherapy. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) OCD is a mental illness whose symptoms are involuntary, repetitive – disturbing thoughts, actions or imaginations, and repetitive behaviors- mental actions to deal with this situation. It may occur in the form of automysophobia, uncertainty, problems related to order and symmetry, sexual and religious thoughts .Beside these, compensatory behaviors such as cleaning obsession, repetitive control, counting might be observed. OCD is a mental disorder, which makes patient’s life difficult and may affect the patient considerably. People with OCD are aware of their unusual thoughts and behaviors .Yet; they cannot stop themselves from thinking and behaving in that way. OCD is often treated by using both medication and psychotherapy. However some patients would also be treated with psychotherapy.

 

 

·         Desire disorders (excessive or low sexual desire)·          Arousal disorder (erectile dysfunction), ·         Orgasm disorder ( not having orgasm, pre-ejaculation)·         Pain disorder (Vaginismus, painful sexual intercourse)·         While the most common complaints of the women is desire and orgasm disorders,  their most common reason for consulting is vaginismus, which is described as the situation in which the coition is not fully experienced due to involuntary contraction of the pelvic muscles.

  • The most common complaints of the men are erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

 

Sexual therapy is a therapy method which lasts about 6-8 sessions and carried out by informing both couples. In general, cognitive-behavioral techniques are applied. The possibility of a successful treatment would be high when both the therapist and the consultants participate in the therapy.

 

ALCOHOL- SMOKING- SUBTANCE USE DISORDERS

 

Beginning at an early age and increasing gradually, unfortunately cigarette, alcohol and substance use disorder is a serious disorder affecting mental, physical state, social and professional life of the individuals.

 

Cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis (cannabis), bonsai heroin, cocaine, amphetamine (ecstasy), volatile substance (thinner) are the commonly used addictive substances in our country.

 

Addiction is a disorder, which lasts for a life time. Overcoming substance addiction is possible thanks to appropriate treatments, administered at the right time. Patient and physician cooperation is extremely important. If the patient has high motivation, then the chance of a successful treatment will be high.

The treatment has the following stages: removing the substance from the body (detoxification), elimination of deprivation, administering appropriate psychotherapy and/or medication related to psychological addiction. Some patients are suitable for in-patient

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